Discovering Jesus in the Old Testament Law

On Sunday mornings we are doing a class entitled Jesus on Every Page; these are my notes from those classes.

I. Law in the Context of Grace

A. Freed unto Worship

  • “Before God gave Israel his law he gave them himself, as their redeemer. . .  In his grace and in faithfulness to his covenant promise, he had acted first and redeemed them.  He had not sent Moses with the ten commandments under his cloak to tell Israel that if they would keep the law, God would save them.  Precisely the other way around.  He saved them and then asked them to keep his law in response. . .  Obedience flows from grace; it does not buy it.”[1]

B. The Testimony of Scripture

  • The Nature of the Promise

16 Now the promises were made to Abraham and to his offspring. It does not say, “And to offsprings,” referring to many, but referring to one, “And to your offspring,” who is Christ. 17 This is what I mean: the law, which came 430 years afterward, does not annul a covenant previously ratified by God, so as to make the promise void. 18 For if the inheritance comes by the law, it no longer comes by promise; but God gave it to Abraham by a promise (Galatians 3:16-18).

What is Paul’s point here?  How does he explain the relationship between the Abrahamic and Mosaic covenants?  Paul is explaining that God’s promise to Abraham, like the one in the garden, finds its fulfillment not in Abraham’s offspring in a general or plural sense but specifically in the singular offspring who is Jesus Christ.  Jesus will possess the gates of his enemies and in Christ all the nations of the earth will be blessed.  Because this promise came before the promise to Moses it supersedes it and therefore law keeping cannot be a means of obtaining the inheritance.

  • Grace and Redemption Precede the Giving of the Law

1On the third new moon after the people of Israel had gone out of the land of Egypt, on that day they came into the wilderness of Sinai.  2They set out from Rephidim and came into the wilderness of Sinai, and they encamped in the wilderness.  There Israel encamped before the mountain, 3while Moses went up to God.  The Lord called to him out of the mountain, saying, “Thus you shall say to the house of Jacob, and tell the people of Israel: 4You yourselves have seen what I did to the Egyptians, and how I bore you on eagles’ wings and brought you to myself.  5Now therefore, if you will indeed obey my voice and keep my covenant, you shall be my treasured possession among all peoples, for all the earth is mine; 6and you shall be to me a kingdom of priests and a holy nation.  These are the words that you shall speak to the people of Israel” (Exodus 19:1-6).

  • The Law Comes as a Result of the Promise

20“When your son asks you in time to come, ‘What is the meaning of the testimonies and the statutes and the rules that the Lord our God has commanded you?’ 21then you shall say to your son, ‘We were Pharaoh’s slaves in Egypt.  And the Lord brought us out of Egypt with a mighty hand.  22And the Lord showed signs and wonders, great and grievous, against Egypt and against Pharaoh and all his household, before our eyes.  23And he brought us out from there, that he might bring us in and give us the land that he swore to give to our fathers.  24And the Lord commanded us to do all these statutes, to fear the Lord our God, for our good always, that he might preserve us alive, as we are this day.  25And it will be righteousness for us, if we are careful to do all this commandment before the Lord our God, as he has commanded us’ (Deuteronomy 6:20-25).

Because of His promise the Lord rescues His people from bondage and gives them the law.

II. Principles for Discovering Jesus in the Old Testament Law

A. The Law Keeping is Not, Nor was it Ever, an Alternate Way to Establish Relationship with God

  • “The law of God is not a system of merit whereby the unsaved seek to earn divine favor but a pattern of life given by the Redeemer to the redeemed so that they might know how to live for his good pleasure.”[2]  Tim Keller puts it this way,

Traditional religion teaches that if we do good deeds and follow the moral rules in our external behavior, God will come into our hearts, bless us, and give us salvation.  In other words, if I obey, God will love and accept me.  But the gospel is the reverse of this: If I know in my heart that God has accepted me and loves me freely by grace, then I can begin to obey, out of inner joy and gratitude.  Religion is outside in, but the gospel is inside out.[3]

So we must be careful not to confuse the religion of the Pharisees with the gracious giving of the law to Israel.

B. Because of His Grace and in Fulfillment of the Promise Christ Keeps the Law on Our Behalf

  • We have seen this clearly outlined for us as we have gone through the Gospel of Luke.  From His birth, circumcision, baptism to His desert triumph over the Tempter and teaching; Luke presents Him as the keeper of the law as the true Adam and faithful Israel.  Jesus lives, dies, and is resurrected on our behalf.

C. The Division of the Law into Moral, Civil, and Ceremonial is Arbitrary at Best

  • The Ten Commandments set forth how we are to image and worship God then “after stating the law in broad, prescriptive, and principial terms, Moses begins the process of applying the Ten Commandments to the historical situation of Israel.”[4]  The law is therefore to be viewed as a unified application of the Ten Commandments to the whole of Israel’s life.  This “is what we find in the teaching of Jesus.  It was not just a repetition of all the laws, like a shopping list.  Nor was it a new law that disregarded the original.  Rather, he restored the true perspective and essential point of the law.  He brought back the urgent appeal of Moses for a single-minded, uncomplicated loyalty to God.”[5]
  • There are differing views on this.  David Murray, the author of Jesus on Every Page, argues that the moral law was given to Adam and Eve and is imbedded in the human conscience and was given to Moses in written form.  The ceremonies prescribed by the Ceremonial law were abolished as Christ has replaced the tabernacle and temple.  The civil law of Israel ceased to exist with the destruction of Jerusalem in AD 70.  I do not, however, find Murray’s argument to be convincing.

D. The Structure of the Pentateuch Anticipates a Time of Eschatological Fulfillment

  • “The outlook is eschatological and anticipates a time when that which the law did not achieve in Israel will be the reality.”[6]  From the rebellion of Adam to the golden calf and culminating in the covenant in Deuteronomy the narrative structure of the Pentateuch points to a fulfillment beyond itself (cf. Deuteronomy 30:1-10).

III. Encouragement Along the Way

A. Looking Beyond the Covenants Thus Far

  • “And the Lord your God will circumcise your heart and the heart of your offspring, so that you will love the Lord your God with all your heart and with all your soul, that you may live” (Deuteronomy 30:6).
  • With the mention of heart circumcision as a divine enabling to fulfill the greatest commandment the Pentateuch closes and anticipates something beyond the covenant with Abraham and the covenants with Moses/Israel.

IV. Examples of Jesus in the Old Testament Law

  • The Confirmation of the Covenant – The covenant is inaugurated with the building of an altar, the burning of a sacrifice, and the pouring of blood upon the redeemed covenant community of Israel (Exodus 24:1-8).  What was spread upon the doorposts at Passover in poured out upon the covenant community with the confirmation of this covenant and as redemptive history unfolds and the anticipation of a greater covenant grows so does the apparent need for a greater sacrifice.
  • The Patient and Gracious Covenant Lord – “The inescapable truth is that the grace of God continues to shine upon a people whose major claim to fame is the suicidal ability to break the covenant.”[7]  “21But now the righteousness of God has been manifested apart from the law, although the Law and the Prophets bear witness to it— 22the righteousness of God through faith in Jesus Christ for all who believe.  For there is no distinction: 23for all have sinned and fall short of the glory of God, 24and are justified by his grace as a gift, through the redemption that is in Christ Jesus, 25whom God put forward as a propitiation by his blood, to be received by faith.  This was to show God’s righteousness, because in his divine forbearance he had passed over former sins.  26It was to show his righteousness at the present time, so that he might be just and the justifier of the one who has faith in Jesus” (Romans 3:21-26).
  • The Curse of the Law – The covenants were structured with blessings for obedience and curses for disobedience.  Galatians tells us that “Christ redeemed us from the curse of the law by becoming a curse for us—for it is written, ‘Cursed is everyone who is hanged on a tree’” (Galatians 3:13).


[1]Christopher J. H. Wright, Knowing Jesus Through the Old Testament (Downers Grove, IL: IVP Academic, 1992), 192-93.
[2]J. A. Moyter, “Biblical Concept of Law,” in Evangelical Dictionary of Theology, ed. Walter E. Elwell (Grand Rapids, MI: Baker, 1984), 624.
[3]Timothy Keller, Center Church: Doing Balanced, Gospel-Centered Ministry in Your City(Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 2012), 47.
[4]Michael D. Williams, Far as the Curse is Found: The Covenant Story of Redemption (Phillipsburg, NJ: P&R Publishing, 2005), 164.
[5]Wright, Knowing Jesus Through the Old Testament, 191.
[6]Graeme Goldsworthy, Preaching the Whole Bible as Christian Scripture (Grand Rapids, MI: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 2000), 165.
[7]Goldsworthy, Preaching the Whole Bible as Christian Scripture,158.


Prayer and Suffering Display the Worth of the Gospel

On Sunday mornings we are doing a class entitled The Church, the Gospel, and the Ends of the Earth; these are my notes from today’s class on prayer and suffering.

I. Prayer Displays the Worth of the Gospel

A. Isaiah Models Missional Prayer

The first passage that comes to mind when talking about the missional nature of prayer I immediately think of Isaiah 6.

1In the year that King Uzziah died I saw the Lord sitting upon a throne, high and lifted up; and the train[a] of his robe filled the temple.  2Above him stood the seraphim. Each had six wings: with two he covered his face, and with two he covered his feet, and with two he flew.  3And one called to another and said:

“Holy, holy, holy is the Lord of hosts; the whole earth is full of his glory!”

4And the foundations of the thresholds shook at the voice of him who called, and the house was filled with smoke.  5And I said: “Woe is me! For I am lost; for I am a man of unclean lips, and I dwell in the midst of a people of unclean lips; for my eyes have seen the King, the Lord of hosts!”

6Then one of the seraphim flew to me, having in his hand a burning coal that he had taken with tongs from the altar.  7And he touched my mouth and said: “Behold, this has touched your lips; your guilt is taken away, and your sin atoned for.”

Isaiah is confronted by the glory of the Lord, responds to it in broken humility over his sin and the sin of Israel.  Then a seraphim flies to Isaiah holding a burning coal taken from the altar.  The temple is filled with smoke because a sacrifice has been made on the altar and this seraphim takes a burning coal from that sacrifice and touches it to Isaiah’s unclean lips.  This sacrifice is applied to Isaiah and it takes away his guilt and atones for his sin.

Isaiah hears the intertrinitarian conversation as the Lord asks Himself “Whom shall I send, and who will go for us?”  Having just seen the Lord upon His throne and experiencing His atoning sacrifice for sins Isaiah exclaims, “Here am I! Send me.”  The prophet cries out, “I will tell of your glory, I will make your gracious atonement known!”  The Lord’s reply is devastating as He exhorts Isaiah to proclaim, “Keep on hearing, but do not understand; keep on seeing, but do not perceive” and commands him to “Make the heart of this people dull . . . [lest they] turn and be healed.”  Isaiah, having just experienced the Lord’s atoning sacrifice for sins, would not be proclaiming that great salvation to his people; no, his message was one of judgment and its purpose was to harden Israel’s heart so that she would not turn to the Lord in repentance.

Upon hearing this Isaiah replies asking, “How long, O Lord?”  There are two primary ways in which Isaiah’s question has been interpreted; first, “how long must I proclaim this message?” and second, “how long will their hardness persist?” or “how long until you redeem your people?”  Based upon Isaiah’s emphasis upon the fulfillment of YHWH’s covenant promises, his understanding of the blessings and curses of those covenants (cf. Deuteronomy 28; 30:1-10), and the Lord’s reply the later understanding of his reply best fits within the context of his ministry.  In this sense Isaiah cries out “How long until your people repent and you restore your blessing to them?”  The Lord’s reply glimmers with though Israel will be scattered in exile and the Promised Land laid to waste and burnt to the ground like a tree its stump will remain.  Later in Isaiah we see that this stump is Jesus Christ who is the atoning sacrifice, “the Lamb of God, who takes away the sin of the world” (John 1:29).  That is the hope the Lord offers in His reply.

We must regain Isaiah’s missional understanding of the Lord, his missional zeal for his people, and his missional petition on their behalf.  We must come to view God as Isaiah did; as a God who sends and saves, who graciously self-discloses Himself, and who makes atonement for the sins of His people.  We must be broken over our sin and over the sins of our culture crying out in intercession, “How long will our cities be ravaged by the worship of idols?  How long will this people persist in self-reliance?  How long will they perceive your invisible attributes and continue to suppress the truth in unrighteousness?  How long will they harden their hearts against you?  How long will they keep on hearing, but not understand?  How long will they keep on seeing, but not perceive?  How long will you make the heart of this people dull, and their ears heavy, and blind their eyes?  How long until they see with their eyes, and hear with their ears, and understand with their hearts?  How long until you turn them to yourself that they may be healed?  . . . How long, O Lord?

Along this line of thought David Garrison in his book, Church Planting Movements: How God is Redeeming a Lost World, writes, “Prayer is the soul’s deepest cry of rebellion against the way things are, seeing the lost of this world and crying out, ‘This does not glorify God, and so, by God’s grace, it must change!’  Prayer comes from God and ascends back to God on behalf of those who do not know God.”[1]

B. Prayer and Proclamation

Commenting on Ephesians 6:16-18 John Piper explains, “Prayer is the power that wields the weapon of the word.  And by the word of God we do battle against sin and unbelief in our own lives and in the world.”[2]

C. Prayer and Mission

“We cannot know what prayer is for until we know that life is war. . .  Prayer is primarily a wartime walkie-talkie for the mission of the church as it advances against the powers of darkness and unbelief.  It is not surprising that prayer malfunctions when we try to make it a domestic intercom to call upstairs for more comforts in the den.”[3]

II. Suffering Displays the Worth of the Gospel

A. Introduction

It was March 15, 2004 and five Southern Baptist missionaries driving through Mosul, in northern Iraq, were ambushed and four of them were murdered.  Months before Karen Watson had given a letter to her pastor in Bakersfield, California that was to be opened upon the event of her death.  In it she wrote, “When God calls, there are no regrets.  I tried to share my heart with you as much as possible, my heart for the nations.  I wasn’t called to a place.  I was called to Him, to glory.  To obey was my objective.  To suffer was expected.  His glory was my reward.  His glory is my reward.”[4]  She then writes, exhorting the reader, exhorting us, “Care more than some think is wise.  Risk more than some think is safe. Dream more than some think is practical, and expect more than some think is possible.  I was called not to comfort or success but to obedience.”[5]

Al Mohler, speaking in chapel at the Southern Baptist Theological Seminary, explained, “As we first heard this word (of the four deaths), we realized that the cause of the Gospel needed at least four more.  That’s just status quo, four more. But advance is going to take far more than four.”[6]

And indeed advance has come, and will continue to come, at a high cost.  The twentieth century alone saw nearly fifty million martyrs, that is almost 1,250 people martyred daily.[7]  For those of us in this room, in comfortable America, that reality is almost incomprehensible.

B. Suffering and Persecution Defined

Suffering and persecution are related.  Persecution can result in suffering but not all suffering is the result of persecution.  Looking at Paul’s statements in II Corinthians 11:23-28 we can see the difference between these two things.  Acts of persecution are underlined, suffering is in boldface, and suffering as a result of persecution is underlined and boldfaced.

23Are they servants of Christ? I am a better one—I am talking like a madman—with far greater labors, far more imprisonments, with countless beatings, and often near death24Five times I received at the hands of the Jews the forty lashes less one25Three times I was beaten with rods. Once I was stoned. Three times I was shipwrecked; a night and a day I was adrift at sea; 26on frequent journeys, in danger from rivers, danger from robbers, danger from my own people, danger from Gentiles, danger in the city, danger in the wilderness, danger at sea, danger from false brothers; 27in toil and hardship, through many a sleepless night, in hunger and thirst, often without food, in cold and exposure28And, apart from other things, there is the daily pressure on me of my anxiety for all the churches.

Suffering is important as a display of the gospel.  We saw that recently when we spent a weekend studying Hebrews.  We, as a church, need to see individuals looking to Jesus and running the race with endurance.  As they suffer through cancer and disease exhorting us that Jesus is worth it, that this present affliction is light and momentary compared to the eternal weight of glory (Romans 8:18; II Corinthians 4:17-18; Hebrews 12:1-2).

Charles L. Tieszen defines persecution as, “Any unjust action of varying levels of hostility perpetuated primarily on the basis of religion and directed at Christians, resulting in varying levels of harm as it is considered from the victim’s perspective.”[8]

  • Any unjust action
  • varying levels of hostility/resulting in varying levels of harm
  • perpetuated primarily on the basis of religion
  • directed at Christians
  • considered from the victim’s perspective

C. American Exceptionalism and Global violence

We come to this discussion from an incredibly unique vantage point.  For us as Americans the global reality of persecution is almost incomprehensible.  There are countless issues facing the global church that are completely foreign to us and because of that we are not addressing these things theologically.  So I want to force our hand this morning and address some of these things and hopefully force us to view the world from a different perspective.

1. Islam Does Not Have a Monopoly on Violence

I think our understanding of persecution and the relationship between followers of Christ and Islam is shaped more by American foreign policy than by Scripture and the global context of religious violence.

Charles L. Tieszen explains, “Persecution can be perpetuated on the basis of ethnicity, political persuasion, nationality, or any number of other factors.  When religion is involved, adherents of any religion or belief can be targets.”  And I would add that adherents of any religion or belief can be perpetrators.  He continues, “In this light, Baha’i communities are persecuted in Iran; Muslims are persecuted in India and Nigeria; and Tibetan Buddhists are persecuted in China.  Similar examples are numerous.”[9]

In the global context there are countless religions and belief systems that have resorted to religious violence and we only looked at four countries.  We could go a step further and break it down to people groups within countries and see just how pervasive violence is.  The main point I want us to see here is that Islam does not have a monopoly on violence.  We have to step out of our American experience of terrorism and the current foreign policy discussion of America and Islam and come to see this within the global religious context.

2. Christians are, Unfortunately, Not Always Passive

These are questions that we don’t have to ask ourselves.  When something happens locally we have the police and various government agencies that assure us that the perpetrator(s) will be found and brought to justice and the same thing happens globally with our armed forces.  We are never in the situation that Coptic Christians, in Egypt, found themselves in when during a funeral Muslim youth began throwing rocks and police fired tear gas into the cathedral.  We have never had to decide whether or not to use Molotov cocktails to incinerate protestors at a funeral.[10]

Or we could look at Nigeria where Christians have slaughtered Muslims and burned the bodies on piles of tires.[11]  There one Christian leader has argued for the church to build armies saying, “People say, ‘When they slap your cheek, you turn the other.’  We have turned both, and they have slapped us.  There is nothing else to turn.”[12]  Thankfully within that same context there are others who are arguing, “To fight back is contrary to the position of our Lord Jesus Christ. . .  He said, ‘If they strike you on one cheek, turn the other.’  He did that when he was arrested. It was what he used to conquer the world.”

So the world looks vastly different through non-American eyes.  If we are going to understand persecution then we have to come to grips with how we have been shaped by the American context. This means coming to understand that those who persecute us are not our political enemies but our mission field.

D. Persecution is Guaranteed

There are countless passages we could look at here but II Timothy 3:12 is pretty straightforward, “Indeed, all who desire to live a godly life in Christ Jesus will be persecuted.”

Luke 14:27 where Jesus says, “Whoever does not bear his own cross and come after me cannot be my disciple” is also a helpful passage in this regard.  “Bearing ones cross” has been interpreted any number of ways over the years but I want us to hear these words as those listening to Jesus would have understood them.  Rome came to power in Judea in 63BC and it is estimated that they crucified 30,000 during their rule.  Furthermore, Judas of Galilee, who helped found the Zealots, led a revolt against Rome, which resulted in nearly 2,000 men being crucified along the roads of Galilee,[13] an event that many of Christ’s hearers would have vividly remembered.  Jesus is warning the great crowds that had gathered that following Him could result in death.

E. Persecution as Incarnational Ministry

“But we have this treasure in jars of clay, to show that the surpassing power belongs to God and not to us.  We are afflicted in every way, but not crushed; perplexed, but not driven to despair; persecuted, but not forsaken; struck down, but not destroyed; always carrying in the body the death of Jesus, so that the life of Jesus may also be manifested in our bodies.  For we who live are always being given over to death for Jesus’ sake, so that the life of Jesus also may be manifested in our mortal flesh.  So death is at work in us, but life in you” (II Corinthians 4:7-12).

From this text, we see that through suffering the life of Jesus is manifested in the body, the flesh, of the one who suffers.  What specifically is occurring in this text?  Looking at two other texts will clarify what is occurring here.

“Now I rejoice in my sufferings for your sake, and in my flesh I am filling up what is lacking in Christ’s afflictions for the sake of his body, that is, the church” (Colossians 1:24).

What is still lacking? Wasn’t Christ’s work on the cross complete?  Paul’s words here almost sound like heresy!  The only other place where the Greek phrase “fill up what is lacking” appears is in Philippians 2:30, “for he [Epaphroditus] nearly died for the work of Christ, risking his life to complete what was lacking in your service to me.”

Paul is writing to the church in Philippi, who had sent Epaphroditus to care for him.  Here he informs the church in Philippi that Epaphroditus had completed what was lacking in their service.

So what was lacking?  How was the church in Philippi’s service to Paul incomplete prior to their sending of Epaphroditus?

“The gift to Paul was the gift of the church as a body.  It was a sacrificial offering of love.  What was lacking . . . was the church’s presentation of this offering in person.”[14]

Understanding Philippians 2:30 allows us to understand what Paul means in Colossians 1:24.  “What is lacking is that the infinite value of Christ’s afflictions are not known in the world.  They are still a mystery (hidden) to most peoples.  And God’s intention is that the mystery be revealed”[15] and they are revealed through our suffering.  “Christ intends for the great commission to be a presentation to the nations of the sufferings of his cross, in the sufferings of his people.  That’s the way the commission will be finished folks!”[16]  Simply stated, suffering is one of the means by which we incarnate the gospel into culture.

F. Persecution as the Means by Which God is Advancing His Kingdom

In Matthew 11 John the Baptist, who is imprisoned, sends messengers to Jesus asking, “Are you the one who is to come, or shall we look for another” (11:3)?

“Go and tell John what you hear and see: 5the blind receive their sight and the lame walk, lepers are cleansed and the deaf hear, and the dead are raised up, and the poor have good news preached to them.  6And blessed is the one who is not offended by me” (11:4b-6).

Yes, Jesus is the one He is fulfilling the promise of Isaiah 61 but in His reply He makes no mention of proclaiming liberty to the captives.  Because captive John the Baptist would not be set free John was going to die.  And Jesus then addresses the crowds concerning John and in verse 12 explains, “From the days of John the Baptist until now the kingdom of heaven has suffered violence, and the violent take it by force.”  Commenting on this verse Erwin Raphael McManus exclaims, “God’s Kingdom is a Kingdom of war. Not where we kill but where we are willing to let others kill us. Not where we hate but we are willing to embrace the hate of others. Not where we are violent but where we take the violence of the world upon ourselves and allow the love of God to prevail. I wonder how many of us actually believe God can prevail if we love the worst of sinners; if we extend our lives into the most dangerous situation in the world?”

[1]David Garrison, Church Planting Movements: How God is Redeeming a Lost World (Bangalore, India: WIGTake Resources, 2004), 176-177.
[2]John Piper, “The Weapon Serves the Wielding Power,” Desiring God [on-line]; accessed 7 May 2013;; Internet.
[3]John Piper, Let The Nations Be Glad! The Supremacy of God In Missions (Grand Rapids: Baker Academic, 2003), 45.
[4]David Roach, “Mohler: Slain missionaries spotlight need for worldwide Gospel proclamation,” SBTS [on-line]; accessed 7 May 2013;; Internet.
[7]Charles L. Tieszen, “Mission in Contexts of Violence: Forging Theologies of Persecution and Martyrdom,” in Missions in Contexts of Violence, Evangelical Missiological Society Series, no. 15 (Pasedena, CA: William Carey Library, 2008), 86n6.
[8]Charles L. Tieszen, “Mission in Contexts of Violence: Forging Theologies of Persecution and Martyrdom,” in Missions in Contexts of Violence, Evangelical Missiological Society Series, no. 15 (Pasedena, CA: William Carey Library, 2008), 80.
[9]Ibid., 80.
[10]David Kenner, “Egypt’s Christians are under fire,” Foreign Policy [on-line]; accessed 7 May 2013;; Internet.
[11]“Bodies pile up after Nigeria riot,” BBC [on-line]; accessed 7 May 2013;; Internet.  See also “Riots in Nigeria leave many dead,” BBC [on-line]; accessed 7 May 2013;; Internet.
[12]Sunday Oguntola, “Church Leaders Debate Self-Defense,” Christianity Today [on-line]; accessed 7 May 2013;; Internet.
[13]John MacArthur, Hard to Believe: The High Cost and Infinite Value of Following Jesus (Nashville: Thomas Nelson Publishers, 2003), 135.
[14]Marvin R. Vincent, A Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the Epistles to the Philippians and to Philemon, The International Critical Commentary (Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark, 1979), 78.
[15]John Piper, “Called to Suffer and Rejoice: To Finish the Aim of Christ’s Afflictions,” Desiring God [on-line]; accessed 7 May 2013;; Internet.
[16]John Piper. Doing Missions When Dying Is Gain, October 27, 1996. [Sermon]

Bottoms Up: The Lost Art of Moderation

This is my second post in this series which aims to provide a biblical perspective on alcohol; the first is available here. I am currently planning two more posts in this series, one addressing contextualization and another explaining why I am convinced that this issue is extremely important.

Starting with Scripture

As I was reading several weeks ago I came across the following passage in Scripture which surprised me for several reasons.

22You shall tithe all the yield of your seed that comes from the field year by year. 23And before the LORD your God, in the place that he will choose, to make his name dwell there, you shall eat the tithe of your grain, of your wine, and of your oil, and the firstborn of your herd and flock, that you may learn to fear the LORD your God always. 24And if the way is too long for you, so that you are not able to carry the tithe, when the LORD your God blesses you, because the place is too far from you, which the LORD your God chooses, to set his name there, 25then you shall turn it into money and bind up the money in your hand and go to the place that the LORD your God chooses 26and spend the money for whatever you desire—oxen or sheep or wine or strong drink, whatever your appetite craves. And you shall eat there before the LORD your God and rejoice, you and your household. 27And you shall not neglect the Levite who is within your towns, for he has no portion or inheritance with you.

28At the end of every three years you shall bring out all the tithe of your produce in the same year and lay it up within your towns. 29And the Levite, because he has no portion or inheritance with you, and the sojourner, the fatherless, and the widow, who are within your towns, shall come and eat and be filled, that the LORD your God may bless you in all the work of your hands that you do.

—Deuteronomy 14:22-29

A Surprising Recommendation

This text’s positive mention of wine is not surprising as there are countless texts where it is spoken of in a positive light, although the definition of “wine” has been debated ad nauseam. This text is surprising in that it, without and qualifications, commends “strong drink.” While the various sides of this debate can continue to argue about the alcohol content of wine the meaning of “strong drink” is impeccably clear. This would have been an alcoholic beverage made from wheat or barley in all likelihood it was similar to beer or other grain alcohol. Even more surprising than the commendation of strong drink is the way in which it is commended and to grasp this it is necessary to look at the passage as a whole.


The passage begins by commanding a tithe of grain, wine, oil, and livestock (cf. Leviticus 27:30–32) that is to be taken to “the place that he will choose” i.e. the location of the tabernacle and eventually the temple (cf. Deuteronomy 12). Due to the vastness of the Promised Land and the difficulty of making this pilgrimage with one’s entire family in addition to a tenth of all one’s grain, wine, oil, and livestock it was allowed that one could convert the tithe into money and travel to the sanctuary.

Before continuing it is best to return to verse 23 and examine the intent of the tithe. This tithe is carried out so that “that you may learn to fear the LORD your God always.” This act is not a means of acquiring personal righteousness rather the act of tithing is a means of instructing the covenant community of their standing before God and the reverence that is always due Him. Whether in times of abundance or drought the tithe stood as a reminder to Israel that their God was sovereign and all they possessed was the result of His grace.

Upon arrival at the sanctuary the money would then be used to purchase various goods. This practice was the history behind the moneychangers during Jesus’ day (cf. Matthew 21:12-13) the difference being that those during the time of Christ were taking advantage of those who had made the pilgrimage to Jerusalem rather than dealing with them fairly. Interestingly enough after their arrival at the temple they were not required to purchase the same goods which they had originally exchanged for money but they were allowed to purchase whatever they desired and their appetites craved. The inclusion here of the brief list “or sheep or wine or strong drink” is by no means exhaustive rather it includes a brief sampling of what they might desire to purchase; nevertheless two of the included options are alcoholic beverages.

They are to enjoy what they have purchased by feasting and rejoicing before, or in the presence of, the LORD. Those who would argue that the inclusion of “wine and strong drink” suggests that the goods were used as burnt offerings and drink offerings do a great disservice to the clear language of this text as well as its eschatological dimensions. The language of the text suggests God’s participation in a feast symbolizing covenant renewal; however, the feast also points forward to the wedding supper of the Lamb. This is not the language of burnt offerings but a meal of rejoicing at the covenant faithfulness and redeeming grace of Israel’s God. The Levites, who were charged with the care of the tabernacle (Numbers 1:50-53), did not have an inheritance of their own and depended upon the rest of the covenant community for provision (cf. Numbers 18:24) were to be included in the feast.

God’s care for Israel is demonstrated in this and even more in that every third year the tithe is to be converted into a local feast whereby the Levites, sojourner, the fatherless, and the widow may be provided for.

Implications for the Church

There are countless implications that can be drawn from this text concerning one’s attitude in giving and the purpose behind this act. This text also has implications for our understanding of the Lord’s Supper as an eschatological and celebratory act. I would love to hear your thoughts on these topics in the comments section.

The purpose of this post is to focus on the implications that must be drawn for our understanding of the use of alcohol within the covenant community of the church. What we find here, and in many other texts that will be discussed over the course of this series, is that the perception that Scripture places an absolute prohibition on the consumption of alcoholic beverages is wholly false. Not only is that perception false but this text arguably places the consumption of alcoholic beverages at the center of Israel’s celebration of the provision and grace of Yahweh.

Am I going to attempt to argue from this that alcohol should be a centerpiece in the worship of the church? No, I am not. Neither should we come to the polar opposite conclusion that alcohol is always condemned by Scripture. The key to this issue, and many others, is moderation. There are times when it is condemned and times when it is commended and the church must be resolved to rest between these two points of tension. This is a difficult task. Both Scripture and church history reveal numerous occasions where the people of God are unable to hold various points of tension and end up in error. We must avoid this error. It is my prayer that, by the grace of God, we will stand between the deadly polls of legalism and liberalism as we live and proclaim the gospel.

As we approach this issue let us do so with both a wisdom that avoids the deadly dangers of legalism and liberalism. If you choose to discuss please do so with charity.

So, whether you eat or drink, or whatever you do, do all to the glory of God.

—I Corinthians 10:31